MINI Cooper’s Bicycle Division Unveils Four New Classy E-Bikes With Hidden Drive System

ZAP
Type Public company

Traded as

Gray Market: ZAAP
Industry Automotive, Electric Vehicle
Founded 1994
Founder Gary Starr (Co-Founder)
Jim McGreen(Co-Founder)
Defunct 2017
Headquarters

Santa Rosa, California

,

United states of america

Fundamental people

Priscilla Lu (Chairman)
Steven Schneider (CEO)
Wang Gang (co-CEO)
Gary Dodd (President)
H. David Jones (COO)
William Hartman (CFO)
Products ZAP Allonym
ZAP Dude
ZAP Electric Taxi
ZAPVAN Shuttle
ZAP Xebra
ZAPTRUCK XL
Revenue Decrease
Us$-iv.07 million (2009)[1]

Net income

Decrease
US$10.69 million (2009)[one]
Full assets Increase
United states of america$thirteen.78 million (2009)[1]
Total equity Increase
US$3.52 million (2009)[1]

Number of employees

35[1]
Subsidiaries Zhejiang Jonway (51%)
Website zapworld.com

defunct

ZAPTRUCK XL electric truck charging at Angel Island California State Park.

ZAP
was an American electric vehicle company that designed, produced and marketed vehicles including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, personal watercraft, hovercraft, ATVs, neighborhood electric vehicles and commercial vehicles. The name stands for
Zero Air Pollution. The visitor headquarters were located in Santa Rosa, California. The company is presumed to be defunct. The company’due south last filing with the California Secretarial assistant of State concern entity database indicates the agent for service of process resigned on Oct 26, 2016.

History

[edit]

ZAP Power Systems (for aught air pollution), was launched past Jim McGreen in 1992 with the goal of designing, building and selling innovative electric vehicles. The company was incorporated on September 23, 1994 equally
ZAP Power Systems
[2]
of Sebastopol, California, past Jim McGreen, and Gary Starr where they started manufacturing electrical powered kits and bikes and and so afterwards the zappy scooter.[3]
Gary Starr was chosen equally a business organisation partner by Jim McGreen due to his previous feel with producing electrical powertrains at companies such every bit
Solar Electric Engineering
[four]
which was afterward renamed
U.S. Electricar, which converted hundreds of vehicles including trucks for Ford and General Motors to running on electrical power and is now known as Enova Systems.[5]

In 1995, ZAP began the manufacturing of electrical bicycle systems, including products such as the ZAP DX[vi]
and SX,[vii]
also as the ElectriCruiser,[8]
PowerBike,[9]
S&Westward Patrol Bicycle,[10]
ZAPTRIKE.[11]

In 1996, Zap began to offer direct public offering stock, and debuted an avant-garde Tricyclopod, the
Zappy
folding electric scooter (invented by co-founder McGreen).[12]

In February 1997, an organisation was made with Chinese bicycle companies[
who?
]

for ZAP’southward bulldoze organisation supply.[13]
[14]
[15]
In Apr 1997, ZAP agreed to sell electric bikes to Brunswick Corp[16]
Past May 1997, ZAP signed a distribution agreement with Fondmetal Consign AG.[17]

In March 1998, Zap’s start electric bike store was opened in San Francisco.[eighteen]

In 1999, ZAP Ability Systems appear a corporate proper name change to ZAPWORLD.COM[nineteen]
and the company fabricated multiple business agreements with companies such as Smith & Wesson, Veiculos Electricos, CSW Total EV, and Electrical Motorbike.[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
and announced the launch of the “Z-Boat”.[24]

In late 1999, Gary Starr ousted Jim McGreen as President, and CEO of ZAP, and put himself in accuse of the visitor.[25]

In May 2000, ZAP introduced a line of bounding main scooters with bombardment-powered propulsion,[26]
and the
Kick-Push button Scooter.[27]
Besides, the company appointed John Dabels every bit President of ZAP following the acquisition of EMB in 1999. Dabels was the quondam marketing manager of the GM EV1 program.[25]
[28]

In January 2001, Dabels resigned equally President of ZAP due to an unwillingness to relocate manufacturing to Asia.[25]

In 2001, ZAP introduced a solar powered scooter and changed the corporate name of the company to simply “ZAP”.[29]
[30]
ZAP as well unveiled the ZAPADAPT, an electric-help for manual wheelchairs at the 2001 Abilities Expo.[31]
[32]

In June 2000, ZAP acquired Aquatic Propulsion Engineering science Inc,[27]
and appear a joint venture with Ningbo Topp Industrial Co. Ltd.[33]

In March 2001, ZAP entered into a strategic brotherhood with Lord’s day Pirate,[34]
In May 2001, ZAP formed a joint venture with Voltage Vehicles to develop, design, manufacture and distribute full line of electric vehicles.[35]

Around 2002, ZAP filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and reorganized with Gary Starr as the chairman of ZAP. Starr hired Steve Schneider to exist the new CEO of ZAP.[25]

In February 2010, ZAP was awarded an engineering contract for the design and development of an electric version of the Grumman LLV, the post truck used by USPS since 1987.[36]

Past 2017, the ZAPworld.com website seemingly went out of employ.[37]
The current fate of the company is somewhat unclear.

Expansion into Communist china

[edit]

In February 2008, ZAP created a joint venture with Chinese visitor Youngman Automotive Group, to revive the nascent Detroit Electric brand.[38]

In Dec 2009, a joint venture company in Hangzhou, China was formed past ZAP, Holley Grouping, and Improve World International, named ZAP Hangzhou.[39]

In July 2010, ZAP confirmed an agreement to larn a stake in Zhejiang Jonway Automobile.[40]
[41]
Approving to do then was confirmed past the Chinese Section of Commerce in Zhejiang Province in September 2010.[42]

In June 2014, ZAP announced a major deal with battery maker Tianjin Battery Visitor Ltd, also known every bit Lishen to convert ane,000 fleet vehicles to utilise electric power only.[43]

Business concern units

[edit]

ZAP had two principal business units:
ZAP Electric Vehicles
[44]
and
ZAP Recharge-Information technology-All.[45]

ZAP Electric Vehicles

[edit]

The company operated a charter and finance programme for sales of its automotive product line which included the ZAPTRUCK XL and ZAPVAN Shuttle, two low-speed vehicles for the armada market, the ZAP Xebra Truck and Sedan, and as well developed and commercialized electrical power-assist system motor kits for bicycles, likewise equally electric bicycles, electrical ATVs and personal electric scooters.

The wholly owned subsidiaries were: Voltage Vehicles, a Nevada company engaged in the distribution and sale of advanced engineering and conventional automobiles;[46]
ZAPWorld Stores, Inc., engaged in consumer sales of ZAP products in 1 location; ZAP Manufacturing, Inc., also a Nevada company, engaged in the distribution of ZAP products; RAP Group, Inc., was engaged in the sale and liquidation of conventional automobiles; and ZAP Rental Outlet, a Nevada company. (ZAP World Outlet, ZAP Rental Outlet and RAP Group are now inactive subsidiaries).

ZAP Recharge-It-All

[edit]

This division was focused on portable free energy solutions or (batteries), the company through the Recharge-It-All line sold battery packs to power or charge a range of mobile electronics such equally cellular phones, digital cameras and laptops, providing significantly more than charge fourth dimension than available technologies.[47]
The Portable Energy devices fell under 2 product lines. Information technology included the universal chargers and iPOD models and the iPhone.[48]
The universal chargers were rechargeable bombardment packs that extended the use of small and medium-sized electronic devices upwards to two to five times their normal battery life.

Fleet vehicles

[edit]

The reorganized ZAP’southward market strategy was announced to cover fleet needs, with four tangible products launched until date,[49]
the ZAP Xebra (2006), ZAP Dude ATV (2008), ZAP Truck Xl (2008) and the ZAP Shuttle Van (2008).

ZAP Xebra

[edit]

The ZAP Xebra[50]
was a three-wheeled all-electric city car capable of 40 mph (64 km/h), charges from of a 120Five outlet. Serves Domino’s Pizza delivery service in Las Vegas,[51]
Aspen[52]
in the The states, Coca-Cola distribution model in Montevideo, Uruguay and includes an adapted version: The Xebra Truck.[53]
The United Bundle Service (UPS) in Northern California combines a fleet of Xebra trucks and sedans to expand minor parcel deliveries, afterwards UPS delivery vans transfer smaller packages to locked storage unit, an electrical Xebra machine/truck transports packages into dumbo urban and residential areas where parking and traffic are easier for the smaller vehicles.[54]
After several hundred vehicles were produced, the production of this vehicle was phased out in 2009.[55]

  • Xebra Legal Issues: Massachusetts

According to a July 2008 editorial in
Wired
mag, motorists in Massachusetts were unable to register the ZAP Xebra legally, because the vehicle did not fit the state’s definition of either a car or a motorcycle. Registrants of ZAP Xebras received letters from the state’s Registry of Motor Vehicles stating that their vehicle registration plates had been revoked and their registrations were invalid.[56]

  • Resolution

Both the Usa Business firm of Representatives and United States Senate overrode Massachusetts state law, when they passed legislation on December 31, 2009; assuasive three-wheeled motor vehicles in Boston roads. The alter was achieved through joint efforts by the Registry of Motor Vehicles, country Senator Robert 50. Hedlund from Weymouth, Massachusetts, and state Representative Garrett J. Bradley from Hingham, Massachusetts.[57]

ZAP Dude ATV

[edit]

The electric four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle ZAP Dude ATV, designed for installation security patrols and maintenance functions, can go up to 25 mph (40 km/h) and has a range of 25 miles (40 km) with a 48 volt permanent-magnet castor DC motor and standard 65 amp 60 minutes absorbed drinking glass mat (AGM) lead acid batteries,[58]
fact that sacrifices charging fourth dimension to 4 to 6 hours and the continuous ability to four kW, both indicators improvable with a lithium battery technology. Is the cheapest in the visitor’southward electrical vehicle portfolio, been introduced to natural reserve patrols, United states of america Military[59]
and agriculture and farming markets,[lx]
where usage is scheduled and ability stations are strategically located.

Dude ATV specifications
Motor 48V DC motor
Continuous Ability / Peak Equus caballus Power 4 kW / 12 hp
Length/ Width/ Height/ Weight 76″/ 40″/ 43″/ 707 lbs
Max. Capacity (Weight/ Tow/ Rack) 290 lbs/ 650 lbs/ 100 lbs (forepart & rear)
Wheelbase/ Turning Radius 46.v”/ 124″

  • In that location was an attached argument that range would vary depending on loma grade, speed, and passenger weight.

    [61]

ZAP Truck XL

[edit]

The ZAPTRUCK Forty classifies as a Naught Emission Vehicle (ZEV), with an off-road payload up to 1,900 lb (860 kg) and a convertible truck bed, have served a minor contractor company from California, Ghilotti Structure Co., to move parts off site,[62]
UPS delivery services have also add together the four-wheeled vehicle mostly to its Bay Area parcel armada needs,[63]
[64]
the Federal Aviation Assistants (FAA) have added the vehicle to their transportation operating manner.[65]
The U.S. War machine has been putting the vehicle to test past engaging them into logistics tasks since 2009.[66]

Products under evolution

[edit]

ZAP-X

[edit]

The ZAP-10 is an electric crossover SUV previously expected to be launched in 2008 by ZAP and Lotus Engineering based on the Lotus APX prototype platform.[67]
The claimed potential performance was a full of 644 bhp (480 kW; 653 PS) from four in-wheel electrical motors, a 350-mile (560 km) single-charge range, 155 mph (249 km/h) elevation speed, 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) dispatch in 4.8 seconds and a ten-minute recharge time, with an estimated production cost of over $395 million together with the Alias.[68]
This production has non been offered for auction to the public.


ZAP Electric SUV/Taxi

[edit]

ZAP is developing the ZAP Electric SUV/Taxi, an all-electric family SUV, tested at the
Korea Electric Vehicle Challenge
from March to early on April,[69]
an on-route multistage demonstration event of three remainder and recharge stops that includes a 220 km throughway rally at average speeds of eighty–85 km/h(52.viii mph).[70]
Vehicle presented ahead of the Beijing International Automotive Exhibition by the CEO of ZAP, Steve Schneider, as the company latest effort.[71]
The model was also available with a fuel efficient engine based on Jonway’s A380 platform,.[72]

ZAP Alias Roadster

[edit]

The
ZAP Alias Roadster
is a plug-in electric three-wheeled sports car from the American electric motorcar maker ZAP that was originally scheduled to go into production in 2009, with ii wheels at the front, each containing an electrical cycle-motor, and ane at the rear, the project initiated in 2007 through a collaboration betwixt ZAP and Lotus Engineering, the UK-based automotive engineering company, who are profitable with the development of the vehicle.[73]
Was supposed to have gone into product in 2009.[74]
The operation announced in 2008, was 0-lx mph (97 km/h) mph in five.seven seconds, with a tiptop speed of 156 mph (251 km/h) mph and a range of 100 miles (160 km).[73]
The vehicle was a finalist at the 2010 Progressive Insurance X Prize[75]
driven by Al Unser Jr., simply was eliminated due to mechanical failure in the 97th mile of a 100-mile runway event.[76]
[77]

Controversies

[edit]

Fraud allegations

[edit]

Information technology has been reported by Wired that “ZAP has taken millions from investors and dealers eager to see the visitor’s line of green cars hitting the road. Merely that line has never materialized.” Reportedly, ZAP board members fabricated misleading claims about the company’due south prospects, allowing them to enrich themselves at the expense of dealers who bought franchises and did not receive the cars that they were expecting to sell.

Although such claims were not verified, ZAP has been criticized for over-issuing stock and warrants while failing to expand the model lineup or prove pregnant profit.[78]
While the company sold the low-finish Xebra models for a number of years, more than expensive, higher-operation models have been repeatedly appear only not produced.

Due to this controversy, there take been allegations most ZAP being an investment scam.[79]

Smart Automobile dispute

[edit]

In 2004, Daimler Chrysler abandoned their Smart Car division in the United States, claiming that there was non enough need for the product. In 2005, ZAP took the initiative and started Americanizing Smart Cars they purchased from European dealers. In doing then they secured orders totaling in $ii.ii billion.[80]

In the case ZAP v. Daimler Chrysler AG, et al., Superior Court of California, Canton of Los Angeles, Example No. BC342211. On Oct 28, 2005, ZAP filed a complaint confronting Daimler Chrysler Corporation and others in the Los Angeles Superior Court. The complaint includes claims for intentional and negligent interference with prospective economical relations, merchandise libel, defamation, breach of contract – agreement to negotiate in expert organized religion, alienation of implied covenant of proficient faith and fair dealing, and unfair competition. The complaint alleges that Daimler Chrysler has engaged in a series of anti-competitive tactics aimed at defaming ZAP and disrupting its 3rd-party business organization relationships. Equally a event of the allegations, the complaint requests damages in excess of $500 meg per claim and such other relief as the court deems just and proper.[81]

ZAP sold shares and dealer franchises, partially based on its intention to sell and finance the retrofitting of the Smart Car to United states standards. The importation and conversion to meet US safety and EPA regulations was engineered and performed by G&1000 Automotive of Santa Ana, CA. Zap quoted mileage figures for the car as being the mid 40 range. This calculation was taken from U.k. exam figures and was based on the larger(+20%) Purple gallon. When tested by the EPA at their Ann Arbor lab, it was plant that true mpg figures were in the depression to mid 30s, but Daimler-Chrysler, the Smart car’south manufacturer, said that ZAP’southward behavior revealed “both the sham nature of its purported business and a lack of trustworthiness that is nothing short of stunning.” Although ZAP never claimed to accept a deal with Daimler Chrysler directly, according to filed reports ZAP was the first visitor to import Smart cars to the United states and did sell 300 Smart cars that it bought from independent Daimler-Chrysler distributors, it besides filed suit confronting Daimler-Chrysler in California for libel and business organisation interference. ZAP won the initial filings simply Daimler won a later appeal based solely on jurisdiction.[82]
[83]


Franklin, Kentucky plant

[edit]

Plans to begin construction of a manufactory in Franklin, Kentucky, were appear past ZAP in Baronial 2008, but construction plans were halted in November 2008 due to the 2007-2008 financial crisis. ZAP planned on contracting Integrity Manufacturing LLC to build and operate the plant while maintaining ownership of the plant. The plant was expected to bring four,000 jobs to the town of Franklin.[84]
[85]
[86]

The establish was controversial due to the fact that the country of Kentucky had been expected to subsidize the plant with taxpayer money. In addition, ZAP was offered various tax incentives such as tax exemptions and rebates.[87]

See also

[edit]

  • Battery electrical vehicle

References

[edit]

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External links

[edit]

  • Official website
  • Ride Along in the Zebra Zero at HowStuffWorks



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZAP_%28motor_company%29